Below you will find a selection of quick questions and answers.

The chemical process by which animal skins are turned into pliable skin is known as tanning. This takes approximately six weeks to complete and includes up to 120 steps.
Tanning includes curing, preserving, soaking and dehairing the raw skins, cleaning the flesh side (suede side) by soaking in a salt solution, wringing to remove excess moisture, splitting, shaving, dyeing, drying, conditioning, buffing, finishing, measuring and grading the skin.

A variety of finishes are used to enhance the natural beauty of leather. Aniline finish is like staining wood allowing the natural grain to shine through, pigmenting is like painting - completely covering the natural surface. Nubuck is the top or grain side of the leather which has been buffed with a fine sand paper to give it that velvety appearance.

The most common finishes are aniline, pigmented, patent, metallic, oily, waxy, suede and nubuck.

The manufacturers select leather of a quality standard. When leather is cut, special precautions are taken to minimise damage and waste. The leather is then assembled and all the pieces are again inspected for quality.

Leather permits the free flow of air and moisture, making it an ideal material for footwear. Because of the special nature of leather, it is most important that your customers receive product care information when making their purchase.
HIDE - A heavy leather tanned from cow hide. Used in mens working shoes and industrial footwear.

CALF - Leather from a small bovline animal. Fairly thin, high quality leather with a fine grain appearance: light weight and supple for better class shoes.

BUFFALO - Distinctive rough grain.

KID - Young goat leather from the skin of a young goat. Fine grain, firm texture and elegant appearance.

KANGAROO - Soft, light and strong: very durable and flexible.

SHEEP - Two groups
1. Wool sheep Leather.
2. 'Grease sheep' - spongy and less durable

PIG - Shows the grain of strong pig bristles.

FULL GRAIN - The natural outer surface or grain portion of leather.

GRAIN - The outer surface of leather produced by any special finishing or embossing.
The object should be to build and maintain a continuous wax film over the shoe. To achieve this Waproo Renovating Polish, Waproo Shoe Cream or Waproo Zorbel must be applied regularly as described below.

1. If only dusty or slightly dirty, clean with Waproo Polishing Cloth or by Waproo brush, brushing lightly, then apply Waproo Zorbel or Waproo Renovating Polish as in (3) and (4).

2. If very dirty or muddy, remove lumps with a blunt knife, preferably as soon as shoes are taken off, then sponge down, using a MINIMUM OF WATER using Joseph Lyddy Glycerine Saddle Soap and wipe with a dry cloth. Do not rub hard, or gritty particles may damage the surface of the leather.

3. When dry apply Waproo Renovating Polish or Waproo Zorbel following any instructions given on the product label. NEVER USE POLISH OR CREAM TO REMOVE DIRT: REMOVE THE DIRT FIRST. Waproo Renovating Polish should match the color of the shoes, a transparent neutral polish can also be used. Remember, however, that excessive applications of polish or cream may change the shade of delicately colored leathers. It is most important that only good quality dressings MADE ESPECIALLY FOR FOOTWEAR as Waproo Shoe Care products are used.

4. Polish by brisk but gentle use of Waproo soft brush or Waproo Polishing Cloth. For a final polish use a soft clean cloth. NOTE: An accumulation of old polish may make shoes dark or shabby. They can be revived by the careful use of Waproo Preparer, Waproo Stripper or Waproo Spot Remover for removing grease spots etc.
1. Normal dirt can be brushed off, but if necessary a minimum of water can be used with Joseph Lyddy Glycerine Saddle Soap.

2. Apply Waproo white shoe cleaners such as Waproo Cosmic White, Waproo White Renovating Polish, Waproo White Shoe Cream or Waproo Super White following the instructions given.
For heavy walking and climbing footwear etc. Joseph Lyddy Dubbin can be applied to give extra waterproofness and flexibility. It is best applied when the footwear is still wet, after use, followed by a second application when the boots or shoes have dried out. It is emphasised that the use of Joseph Lyddy Dubbin makes it very difficult subsequently to obtain a polished appearance. It should also be noted that Joseph Lyddy Dubbin does NOT suit some leather, so in case of doubt advice should be obtained.
FABRIC - Such as linen, gro grain, canvas and satin are some of the textiles used in the manufacture of footwear uppers.
Care Products - Waproo Water & Stain Protector, Waproo Waterproofer or Waproo Water-Stop to make the shoes water repellent. This is important prior to the first wear. When shoes become dirty use Waproo Fabric Shampoo or Joseph Lyddy Glycerine Saddle Soap.

CORK - A natural product from the cork tree.
Care Products - Waproo Water & Stain Protector or Waproo Waterproofer to make the shoes water repellent. This is important prior to the first wear.

POLYURTHANE (PU) - A thin coating of polyurethane on a raised base gives an imitation leather appearance but is less durable than leather.
Care Products - Waproo Zorbel to clean and protect.

Shoes that are cleaned REGULARLY the right way and are looked after well will last longer, look better, retain their shape and remain water-resistant. Care for your shoes and you will extend their life and maintain their as-new appearance over the years.
To dry shoes, put them in a warm airy place. Never dry over an open fire or any artificial heat source.

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